The oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE.The oldest copy of a complete Latin (Vulgate) Bible is the Codex Amiatinus, dating from the 8th century. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that "the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages", Timothy H.Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about the contents of the canon, primarily the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect.
The remaining thirty-nine chapters of Genesis provide an account of God's covenant with the Biblical patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (also called Israel) and Jacob's children, the "Children of Israel", especially Joseph.
It tells of how God commanded Abraham to leave his family and home in the city of Ur, eventually to settle in the land of Canaan, and how the Children of Israel later moved to Egypt.
Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament is "a collection of authoritative texts of apparently divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing." He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it literally written by God and passed to mankind.
Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew canon (c.
With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, the Bible is widely considered to be the best-selling book of all time.
and has been a major influence on literature and history, especially in the West where the Gutenberg Bible was the first mass-printed book.
3rd century BCE), only the Torah first and then the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the Greek Old Testament.
Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging.
The Ketuvim are believed to have been written under the Ruach Ha Kodesh (the Holy Spirit) but with one level less authority than that of prophecy.