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The Egyptians were somewhat familiar with both roots and square roots.
They could plot an arch by using offsets that were measured at regular intervals from a base line, and they could also find out areas.
Maths was also used with fantastic results for building tombs, pyramids and other architectural marvels.
A part of the largest surviving mathematical scroll, the Rhind Papyrus (written in hieratic script), asks questions about the geometry of triangles. The surviving parts of the papyrus show how the Egyptian engineers calculated the proportions of pyramids as well as other structures.
It is a copy made by the scribe Ahmose during the 15th Dynasty reign of the Hyksos Pharaoh, Apepi I.
Ahmose states that his writings are similar to those of the time of Amenemhet III (1842 - 1797 B.
C.) Egyptians knew addition, subtraction, some division and multiplication.
They only multiplied and divided by two, so if they wanted to find e x 5, they would use e x 2 e x 2 e.
With respect to geometry, the commentators are unanimous: the mathematician-priests of the Nile Valley knew no peer.
The geometry of Pythagoras, Eudoxus, Plato, and Euclid was learned in Nile Valley temples. 56 in the Rhind Papyrus gives an equation to find the angle of the slope of a pyramid's face, which in fact is its cotangent.
Finally, as Flinders Petrie found, the architects had several times built into their structures right triangles that obeyed the theorem: a2 b2 = c2, where a and b are the two sides and c is the hypotenuse.